The emergence of quantum computers has brought an unprecedented opportunity for quantum algorithm development and applications in quantum chemistry, quantum simulation, machine learning, cryptography, etc. On universal quantum computers, quantum algorithms can offer exponential speed-ups compared with conventional approaches, yet with significant hardware and algorithmic challenges remaining. Since noisy, small-to-intermediate scale quantum computers (NISQ) are around the corner, it is now critical to innovate quantum algorithms for such devices. One example, “compiler” development, will require innovation that bridges quantum physics, statistics, applied mathematics, and hardware and software design. The compiler is comprised of algorithms that assemble possible physical realizations of a logical operator acting on physical qubits, and then use the error characteristics of qubits (ion or superconducting circuits) to optimize the choice of realization for this architecture. Quantum computing is on the cusp of changing our computational paradigm, with progress exponentially expanding our computational reach. These challenges and opportunities require close collaborations between computer scientists, mathematicians, statisticians, physicists, and engineers, with impacts in scientific research, business, entertainment, and transportation.
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